Did you know that almost 50% of pregnant women experience changes in their bowel habits?

You’re carrying a new life inside you, which is an incredible experience, but it’s also a time of considerable change for your body. Hormonal fluctuations, new dietary needs, and physical changes can all impact your digestive system, leading to alterations in your bowel habits.

But what’s the science behind these changes, and what can you do to manage them? Let’s explore this further, as understanding these shifts can help ensure your comfort and wellbeing during this extraordinary journey.

Understanding Normal Bowel Function

To understand how pregnancy affects your bowels, it’s essential to first grasp what constitutes normal bowel function. Typically, you should pass stool between three times a day to thrice per week, with the stool being formed and firm, not hard. A bowel motion should take less than 2-3 minutes to complete, without strain or pain.

During pregnancy, various factors can alter this normal function. One of the major causes of constipation in pregnancy is the increased production of the hormone Progesterone. This hormone relaxes your intestines and bowel, allowing more time for the water in your stool to be absorbed back into your body, resulting in harder stools.

Additionally, the iron supplements you take during pregnancy can harden stools and cause bloating. Changes in physical activity levels due to fatigue or morning sickness can also slow down your digestive system. As your baby grows, your uterus may exert additional pressure on your bowel, making it more difficult to empty.

Hydration plays a crucial role in maintaining a healthy bowel function. You need at least 2L of water per day during pregnancy. Regular intake of water softens your stool, making it easier to pass.

The effects of hormonal changes on your bowels can be challenging, but they’re a normal part of pregnancy. Remember, it’s important to maintain a balanced diet, stay hydrated, and remain as active as possible to promote regular bowel movements. If constipation persists, don’t hesitate to consult your doctor or physiotherapist for advice.

Define ‘normal’ bowel function:


  • Frequency: Pass stool 3 times per day to 3 times per week, typically daily or every other day.

  • Consistency: Stools should be formed and firm, but not hard, ideally sausage-shaped.
  • Duration: Complete bowel movement should take less than 2-3 minutes.
  • Effort: There should be no straining, difficulty, or pain.
  • Control: It should be easy to control the bowel movement until reaching the toilet.



Bowel Changes During Pregnancy

Building on your knowledge of normal bowel function and its changes during pregnancy, let’s now examine the specific ways your bowels can be affected throughout this transformative period.

One factor that can influence bowel changes is hormonal fluctuations. Specifically, your body produces more of the hormone progesterone during pregnancy. This hormone relaxes your intestines and bowel, resulting in more time for the water in your stool to be absorbed back into your body and leading to harder stool.

Another aspect to consider is your intake of iron supplements, often recommended during pregnancy. While essential for both your health and your baby’s, iron can cause your stools to harden and lead to other gastrointestinal side effects such as bloating.

Furthermore, as your pregnancy progresses, the increasing size of your uterus can exert increased pressure on your bowel. This additional pressure can make it more difficult to fully empty your bowel, potentially leading to constipation or discomfort.

It’s important to remember that these changes are a normal part of pregnancy and there are measures you can take to manage them. Staying hydrated, maintaining a balanced diet, and staying physically active can all contribute to better bowel health.

If you’re struggling with constipation or other bowel issues during pregnancy, don’t hesitate to seek advice from a healthcare professional. They can offer further guidance and suggest safe, effective remedies to help you maintain the best possible bowel health during this important time in your life.

Changes in pregnancy affecting bowel function:

  • Iron intake: Many Australian women take prenatal vitamins containing iron or are prescribed iron supplements, which can harden stools and cause gastrointestinal side effects like bloating.
  • Increased Progesterone: Pregnancy increases the hormone Progesterone, relaxing the intestines and bowel. This allows more water from the stool to be absorbed back into the body, leading to harder stools.
  • Medication for morning sickness: Common prescriptions for morning sickness can lead to constipation.
  • Physical activity changes: Changes in physical activity levels due to fatigue or morning sickness can slow the digestive system.
  • Diet changes: Cravings or morning sickness altering diet can impact bowel habits.
  • Pressure from growing baby: As the baby grows, the expanding uterus can exert extra pressure on the bowel, complicating bowel emptying.
  • Increased risk of haemorrhoids: The pressure on pelvic blood vessels increases, raising the likelihood of haemorrhoids.


Tips for Managing Bowel Issues

Navigating through the various bowel changes during pregnancy may seem daunting, but a handful of effective strategies can help you manage these issues more comfortably. From dietary modifications to exercise recommendations and the use of stool softeners, there are several ways you can take control of your bowel health during this special time.

Dietary modifications are a crucial aspect. You should aim to consume a diet rich in fiber, as it aids in softening stools and promoting regular bowel movements. High-fiber foods like fruits, vegetables, and whole grains are your best choices.

In terms of exercise, regular physical activity can stimulate your intestines, helping to prevent constipation. Aim to get at least 30 minutes of moderate exercise, such as walking or swimming, most days of the week.

If you’re still struggling with constipation, you may consider over-the-counter stool softeners. Always consult with your healthcare provider before starting any new medication during pregnancy.

To help you remember these tips, refer to the dot points below:

Strategies for Preventing and Managing Pregnancy-Related Bowel Issues:

  • Hydration: Aim for at least 2L of water daily, potentially more during hot Queensland summers, to meet your hydration needs.
  • Regular meals: Eating regularly, especially breakfast, can stimulate your digestive system and promote regular morning bowel movements. For those with morning sickness, try tolerable small meals such as fruit, grainy crackers, or a small bowl of muesli.
  • Physical activity: Consult with your physiotherapist to find enjoyable pregnancy-safe exercises. Adhering to the Australian guidelines of 2.5 to 5 hours of moderate intensity exercise per week can improve bowel function.
  • Prompt bathroom use: Respond to the urge to defecate within 5-10 minutes to maintain healthy bowel habits, even at work.
  • Footstool in toilet: Consider using a small footstool to enhance positioning and posture during bowel movements.
  • Physiotherapy assessment: A physiotherapist can provide personalized advice on proper toileting posture and position.
  • Increase fiber intake: Refer to resources like the Continence Foundation of Australia for guidance on reaching the daily fiber recommendation of 25-30g through diet.
  • Digestive-friendly foods: Incorporate foods that aid digestion, such as chia seeds, kiwi fruit, mangoes, and seed & nut mixes.
  • Fiber supplements: For mild constipation, consider fiber supplements like Metamucil or Benefibre, in consultation with your physiotherapist.
  • Stool softeners for severe cases: Discuss pregnancy-safe stool softeners with your physiotherapist and doctor for moderate to severe constipation management.

Frequently Asked Questions

How Does Childbirth Affect Bowel Movements and When Can I Expect Them to Return to Normal?

Childbirth can cause postpartum constipation. Your bowels may take weeks to normalize. Pelvic floor exercises assist in recovery. Laxatives are safe if used correctly. Consult your healthcare provider for personalized advice.

Do Hormonal Changes During Pregnancy Have Long-Term Effects on Bowel Health?

Yes, hormonal changes during pregnancy can impact your postpartum bowel health. It’s normal to experience changes as your fertility cycle adjusts. However, most women’s bowel function returns to pre-pregnancy states within a year.

Can Certain Pregnancy Complications, Like Gestational Diabetes, Influence Bowel Habits?

Yes, gestational diabetes symptoms can influence your bowel habits. Dietary changes, especially increased fiber intake, and staying well-hydrated are crucial. It’s important you discuss any bowel changes with your healthcare provider.

How Can I Differentiate Between Regular Pregnancy-Related Bowel Issues and More Serious Conditions Like Irritable Bowel Syndrome?

Yes, differentiating between regular pregnancy-related bowel issues and irritable bowel syndrome can be complex. Diet changes, stress impact, and exercise benefits all play a role. Consult a healthcare provider for personalized, professional advice.

Can Specific Prenatal Vitamins or Supplements Impact Bowel Function More Than Others?

Sure, supplement selection significantly shapes stool situations. Some prenatal vitamins, especially those high in iron, can increase bowel discomfort due to slower vitamin absorption. Discuss with your doctor for a suitable supplement swap.


So, you’ve seen how pregnancy can turn your bowel habits on their head, right? But remember, these changes are a normal part of this beautiful journey. Armed with this knowledge, you can now take proactive steps to manage any discomfort and maintain your bowel health.

After all, shouldn’t your focus be on the joy of your growing baby, rather than worrying about unexpected trips to the bathroom?